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Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization by John E. Ayers


"Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization" by John E. Ayers
Taylor & Francis Group | 2007 | ISBN: 0849371953 9780849371950 | 447 pages | PDF | 7 MB

This is the first comprehensive, fundamental introduction to the field of Semiconductors. This book reflects current understanding of nucleation, growth modes, relaxation of strained layers, and dislocation dynamics without emphasizing any particular material.

The book provides in-depth descriptions of mismatched heteroepitaxy and lattice strain relaxation, various characterization tools used to monitor and evaluate the growth process, and finally, defect engineering approaches. Numerous examples highlight the concepts while extensive micrographs, schematics of experimental setups, and graphs illustrate the discussion.





Contents
1 Introduction
2 Properties of Semiconductors
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Crystallographic Properties
2.2.1 The Diamond Structure
2.2.2 The Zinc Blende Structure
2.2.3 The Wurtzite Structure.
2.2.4 Silicon Carbide
2.2.5 Miller Indices in Cubic Crystals
2.2.6 Miller–Bravais Indices in Hexagonal Crystals
2.2.7 Orientation Effects
2.2.7.1 Diamond Semiconductors
2.2.7.2 Zinc Blende Semiconductors
2.2.7.3 Wurtzite Semiconductors
2.2.7.4 Hexagonal Silicon Carbide
2.3 Lattice Constants and Thermal Expansion Coefficients
2.4 Elastic Properties
2.4.1 Hooke’s Law
2.4.1.1 Hooke’s Law for Isotropic Materials
2.4.1.2 Cubic Crystals
2.4.1.3 Hexagonal Crystals
2.4.2 The Elastic Moduli
2.4.2.1 Cubic Crystals
2.4.2.2 Hexagonal Crystals
2.4.3 Biaxial Stresses and Tetragonal Distortion
2.4.4 Strain Energy
2.5 Surface Free Energy
2.6 Dislocations
2.6.1 Screw Dislocations
2.6.2 Edge Dislocations
2.6.3 Slip Systems
2.6.4 Dislocations in Diamond and Zinc Blende Crystals
2.6.4.1 Threading Dislocations in Diamond and Zinc Blende Crystals
2.6.4.2 Misfit Dislocations in Diamond and Zinc Blende Crystals
2.6.5 Dislocations in Wurtzite Crystals
2.6.5.1 Threading Dislocations in Wurtzite Crystals
2.6.5.2 Misfit Dislocations in Wurtzite Crystals
2.6.6 Dislocations in Hexagonal SiC
2.6.6.1 Threading Dislocations in Hexagonal SiC
2.6.7 Strain Fields and Line Energies of Dislocations
2.6.7.1 Screw Dislocation
2.6.7.2 Edge Dislocation
2.6.7.3 Mixed Dislocations
2.6.7.4 Frank’s Rule.
2.6.7.5 Hollow-Core Dislocations (Micropipes)
2.6.8 Forces on Dislocations
2.6.9 Dislocation Motion
2.6.10 Electronic Properties of Dislocations
2.6.10.1 Diamond and Zinc Blende Semiconductors
2.7 Planar Defects
2.7.1 Stacking Faults
2.7.2 Twins
2.7.3 Inversion Domain Boundaries (IDBs)
3. Heteroepitaxial Growth
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE)
3.2.1 VPE Mechanisms and Growth Rates
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Considerations
3.2.3 Vapor Phase Epitaxial Reactors
3.2.4 Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)
3.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
3.4 Silicon, Germanium, and Si 1–x Gex Alloys
3.5 Silicon Carbide
3.6 III-Arsenides, III-Phosphides, and III-Antimonides
3.7 III-Nitrides
3.8 II-VI Semiconductors
3.9 Conclusion
4. Surface and Chemical Considerations in Heteroepitaxy
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Surface Reconstructions
4.2.1 Wood’s Notation for Reconstructed Surfaces
4.2.2 Experimental Observations
4.2.2.1 Si (001) Surface
4.2.2.2 Si (111) Surface
4.2.2.3 Ge (111) Surface
4.2.2.4 6H-SiC (0001) Surface
4.2.2.5 3C-SiC (001)
4.2.2.6 3C-SiC (111)
4.2.2.7 GaN (0001)
4.2.2.8 Zinc Blende GaN (001)
4.2.2.9 GaAs (001)
4.2.2.10 InP (001)
4.2.2.11 Sapphire (0001)
4.2.3 Surface Reconstruction and Heteroepitaxy
4.2.3.1 Inversion Domain Boundaries (IDBs)
4.2.3.2 Heteroepitaxy of Polar Semiconductors with Different Ionicities
4.3 Nucleation
4.3.1 Homogeneous Nucleation
4.3.2 Heterogeneous Nucleation
4.3.2.1 Macroscopic Model for Heterogeneous Nucleation
4.3.2.2 Atomistic Model
4.3.2.3 Vicinal Substrates
4.4 Growth Modes
4.4.1 Growth Modes in Equilibrium
4.4.2 Growth Modes and Kinetic Considerations
4.5 Nucleation Layers
4.5.1 Nucleation Layers for GaN on Sapphire
4.6 Surfactants in Heteroepitaxy
4.6.1 Surfactants and Growth Mode
4.6.2 Surfactants and Island Shape
4.6.3 Surfactants and Misfit Dislocations
4.6.4 Surfactants and Ordering in InGaP
4.7 Quantum Dots and Self-Assembly
4.7.1 Topographically Guided Assembly of Quantum Dots
4.7.2 Stressor-Guided Assembly of Quantum Dots
4.7.3 Vertical Organization of Quantum Dots
4.7.4 Precision Lateral Placement of Quantum Dots
5. Mismatched Heteroepitaxial Growth and Strain Relaxation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Pseudomorphic Growth and the Critical Layer Thickness
5.2.1 Matthews and Blakeslee Force Balance Model
5.2.2 Matthews Energy Calculation
5.2.3 van der Merwe Model
5.2.4 People and Bean Model
5.2.5 Effect of the Sign of Mismatch
5.2.6 Critical Layer Thickness in Islands
5.3 Dislocation Sources
5.3.1 Homogeneous Nucleation of Dislocations
5.3.2 Heterogeneous Nucleation of Dislocations
5.3.3 Dislocation Multiplication
5.3.3.1 Frank–Read Source
5.3.3.2 Spiral Source
5.3.3.3 Hagen–Strunk Multiplication
5.4 Interactions between Misfit Dislocations
5.5 Lattice Relaxation Mechanisms.
5.5.1 Bending of Substrate Dislocations
5.5.2 Glide of Half-Loops
5.5.3 Injection of Edge Dislocations at Island Boundaries
5.5.4 Nucleation of Shockley Partial Dislocations
5.5.5 Cracking
5.6 Quantitative Models for Lattice Relaxation
5.6.1 Matthews and Blakeslee Equilibrium Model
5.6.2 Matthews, Mader, and Light Kinetic Model
5.6.3 Dodson and Tsao Kinetic Model
5.7 Lattice Relaxation on Vicinal Substrates: Crystallographic Tilting of Heteroepitaxial Layers
5.7.1 Nagai Model
5.7.2 Olsen and Smith Model
5.7.3 Ayers, Ghandhi, and Schowalter Model
5.7.4 Riesz Model
5.7.5 Vicinal Epitaxy of III-Nitride Semiconductors
5.7.6 Vicinal Heteroepitaxy with a Change in Stacking Sequence
5.7.7 Vicinal Heteroepitaxy with Multilayer Steps
5.7.8 Tilting in Graded Layers: LeGoues, Mooney, and Chu Model
5.8 Lattice Relaxation in Graded Layers
5.8.1 Critical Thickness in a Linearly Graded Layer
5.8.2 Equilibrium Strain Gradient in a Graded Layer
5.8.3 Threading Dislocation Density in a Graded Layer
5.8.3.1 Abrahams et al. Model
5.8.3.2 Fitzgerald et al. Model
5.9 Lattice Relaxation in Superlattices and Multilayer Structures.
5.10 Dislocation Coalescence, Annihilation, and Removal in Relaxed Heteroepitaxial Layers
5.11 Thermal Strain
5.12 Cracking in Thick Films
6. Characterization of Heteroepitaxial Layers
6.1 Introduction
6.2 X-Ray Diffraction
6.2.1 Positions of Diffracted Beams
6.2.1.1 The Bragg Equation
6.2.1.2 The Reciprocal Lattice and the von Laue Formulation for Diffraction
6.2.1.3 The Ewald Sphere
6.2.2 Intensities of Diffracted Beams
6.2.2.1 Scattering of X-Rays by a Single Electron
6.2.2.2 Scattering of X-Rays by an Atom
6.2.2.3 Scattering of X-Rays by a Unit Cell
6.2.2.4 Intensities of Diffraction Profiles
6.2.3 Dynamical Diffraction Theory
6.2.3.1 Intrinsic Diffraction Profiles for Perfect Crystals
6.2.3.2 Intrinsic Widths of Diffraction Profiles
6.2.3.3 Extinction Depth and Absorption Depth
6.2.4 X-Ray Diffractometers
6.2.4.1 Double-Crystal Diffractometer
6.2.4.2 Bartels Double-Axis Diffractometer
6.2.4.3 Triple-Axis Diffractometer
6.3 Electron Diffraction
6.3.1 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
6.3.2 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
6.4 Microscopy
6.4.1 Optical Microscopy
6.4.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
6.4.3 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
6.4.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
6.5 Crystallographic Etching Techniques
6.6 Photoluminescence
6.7 Growth Rate and Layer Thickness
6.8 Composition and Strain
6.8.1 Binary Heteroepitaxial Layer
6.8.2 Ternary Heteroepitaxial Layer
6.8.3 Quaternary Heteroepitaxial Layer
6.9 Determination of Critical Layer Thickness
6.9.1 Effect of Finite Resolution
6.9.2 X-Ray Diffraction.
6.9.2.1 Strain Method
6.9.2.2 FWHM Method.
6.9.3 X-Ray Topography
6.9.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy.
6.9.5 Electron Beam-Induced Current (EBIC)
6.9.6 Photoluminescence
6.9.7 Photoluminescence Microscopy
6.9.8 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
6.9.9 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
6.9.10 Rutherford Backscattering (RBS)
6.10 Crystal Orientation
6.11 Defect Types and Densities
6.11.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy
6.11.2 Crystallographic Etching
6.11.3 X-Ray Diffraction
6.12 Multilayered Structures and Superlattices
6.13 Growth Mode
7. Defect Engineering in Heteroepitaxial Layers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Buffer Layer Approaches
7.2.1 Uniform Buffer Layers and Virtual Substrates
7.2.2 Graded Buffer Layers
7.2.3 Superlattice Buffer Layers
7.3 Reduced Area Growth Using Patterned Substrates
7.4 Patterning and Annealing
7.5 Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO)
7.6 Pendeo-Epitaxy
7.7 Nanoheteroepitaxy
7.7.1 Nanoheteroepitaxy on a Noncompliant Substrate
7.7.2 Nanoheteroepitaxy with a Compliant Substrate
7.8 Planar Compliant Substrates
7.8.1 Compliant Substrate Theory
7.8.2 Compliant Substrate Implementation
7.8.2.1 Cantilevered Membranes
7.8.2.2 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) as a Compliant Substrate
7.8.2.3 Twist-Bonded Compliant Substrates
7.9 Free-Standing Semiconductor Films
7.10 Conclusion
Appendix A: Bandgap Engineering Diagrams
References
Appendix B: Lattice Constants and Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
References
Appendix C: Elastic Constants
References
Appendix D: Critical Layer Thickness
References
Appendix E: Crystallographic Etches
References
Appendix F: Tables for X-Ray Diffraction

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